Research Papers

Anticancer Effects of the Novel Pyrazolyl-Urea GeGe-3

Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25, 5380. (2024)
Authors: Ashleigh Williams, Emma Cooper, Bethany Clark, Laura Perry, Marco Ponassi, Erika Iervasi , Chiara Brullo, Alexander Greenhough, and Michael Ladomery


In a screen of over 200 novel pyrazole compounds, ethyl 1-(2-hydroxypentyl)-5-(3-(3-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)ureido)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate (named GeGe-3) has emerged as a potential anticancer compound. GeGe-3 displays potent anti-angiogenic properties through the presumptive targeting of the protein kinase DMPK1 and the Ca2+-binding protein calreticulin. We further explored the anticancer potential of GeGe-3 on a range of established cancer cell lines, including PC3 (prostate adenocarcinoma), SKMEL-28 (cutaneous melanoma), SKOV-3 (ovarian adenocarcinoma), Hep-G2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), MDA-MB231, SKBR3, MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma), and HeLa (cervix epithelioid carcinoma). At concentrations in the range of 10 μM, GeGe-3 significantly restricted cell proliferation and metabolism. GeGe-3 also reduced PC3 cell migration in a standard wound closure and trans-well assay. Together, these results confirm the anticancer potential of GeGe-3 and underline the need for more detailed pre-clinical investigations into its molecular targets and mechanisms of action.

Keywords: Pyrazole; novel anticancer drugs; cell proliferation; cell migration